|Title:||Consonant-Tone Interaction in Optimality Theory|
|Abstract:||Consonant-Tone Interaction in Optimality Theory
by Seunghun J. Lee
This dissertation presents a constraint-based theory of consonant-tone interaction called the Extended Tone Bearing Unit Theory (xTBU theory). In this presentation, I provide synchronic evidence from a variety of languages that shows how laryngeal features can influence tone. These laryngeal features include voicing, aspiration, glottalization, and voicelessness.
There are three parts to xTBU theory: representation, markedness constraints, and faithfulness constraints. I propose that while tone prefers to associate to moras, tone can also be associated to non-moraic root nodes. I argue that tone directly associated to root nodes acts differently from tone associated to moras due to the interaction of constraints.
The presence and type of directly associated tone is restricted by markedness constraints only. Constraints such as *[+SPREAD GLOTTIS]/L can prevent H tone from spreading over spread glottis consonants; it can also force L tone to change to H, and even force consonants to change their laryngeal features. A significant result is the ability of the constraints to account for apparently unnatural classes of tone-affecting consonants.
An important aspect of the constraint formalism in xTBU theory is that faithfulness constraints only target tone associated to moras; they never target tone associated to non-moraic root-nodes. The lack of faithfulness to directly associated tone means that tone is not contrastive when associated to non-moraic root nodes. Consequently, tone on non-moraic segments is only regulated by markedness constraints.