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Title:The Elements of Functional Phonology
Authors:Paul Boersma
Comment:Superseded by chs. 1 and 7-13 of Functional Phonology, available at http://www.fon.hum.uva.nl/paul/
Abstract:Phonological structures and processes are determined by the functional

principles of minimization of articulatory effort and maximization of

perceptual contrast. We can solve many hitherto controversial issues

if we are aware of the different roles of articulation and perception

in phonology. Traditionally separate devices like the segment,

spreading, licensing, underspecification, feature geometry, and OCP

effects, are surface phenomena created by the interaction of more

fundamental principles.


1 Functional principles

2 Articulatory, perceptual, and hybrid features

3 Hybrid, articulatory, and perceptual representations

4 Formalization of functional principles

5 Articulatory effort

6 The emergence of finiteness

7 Perceptual distinctivity

8 Specificational and faithfulness constraints

9 Interaction between articulation and perception

10 An example of acoustic faithfulness: vowel reduction

11 Typology and phonologization: the local-ranking hypothesis

12 Correspondence: segmental integrity versus featural autonomy

13 Degrees of specification

14 Empirical adequacy of Functional Phonology
Type:Paper/tech report
Article:Version 1