|Title:||Anti-*That-Trace Effects in Norwegian|
|Abstract:||Anti-*That-Trace Effects in Norwegian
Edward W. Keer
In Norwegian a complementizer is obligatory when a subject is
wh-extracted locally from an embedded question as in (1).
1. a. Jeg vet hvem som t vant.
I know who Comp t won
b. *Jeg vet hvem t vant.
I know who t won
'I know who won.'
This phenomenon has been labled the Anti-*that-trace effect by
Taraldsen (1986). In contrast, when a subject is wh-extracted
long distance from an embedded clause, the complementizer is
obligatorily absent - *that-trace effects - as in (2).
2. a. *Jeg vet hvem du tror som t vant.
I know who you think Comp t won
b. Jeg vet hvem du tror t vant.
I know who you think t won
'I know who you think won.'
In this paper I argue that the distribution of the complementizer
in Norwegian follows from the OT syntax system proposed in Grimshaw
(to appear) with the assumption that wh-phrases cannot remain in situ
in Norwegian. Specifically, the complementizer is obligatory when it
is the best available governor for a subject trace and absent when it
blocks government of a subject trace from a better governor.
In Grimshaw's system, traces are subject to two head government
constraints. The general constraint T-Gov requires traces to be head
governed. The specific constraint, T-Lex-Gov requires traces to be
lexically governed. In configurations which exhibit *that-trace
effects, the complementizer is obligatorily absent because having it
violates T-Lex-Gov. In constructions showing Anti-*that-trace effects
however, T-Lex-Gov cannot be satisfied. Therefore, Norwegian must
settle for satisfaction of the less strict T-Gov.
Other issues raised in the paper include: a definition of head
government which differs from that in Grimshaw (to appear) based on
multiple wh-extractions in Norwegian, the hypothesis that the forced
movement of wh-phrases is a result of verb second in Norwegian, and
an exploration of the consequences of my analysis for empty operator
constructions (relative clauses, clefts and comparatives).