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Title:Multiple Input-Output Faithfulness Relations in Japanese
Authors:Haruka Fukazawa
Abstract:Multiple Input-Output Faithfulness Relations in Japanese

Haruka Fukazawa

University of Maryland, College Park

Japanese lexical stratification has been considered problematic in

Optimality Theory (OT) (Prince and Smolensky 1993). Since some

phonological phenomena are observed only in a certain stratum (or

strata), multiple kinds of constraint rankings are necessary to

account for the entire Japanese grammar. This does not respect a

fundamental principle of OT: a single invariant constraint ranking

represents a grammar of each language.

Ito & Mester (1995a) try to solve this problem by introducing that

lexical stratification can be explained in OT by re-ranking of

faithfulness constraints among the strata. However, their approach

still compromises the invariant ranking hypothesis in OT.

Building on Correspondence Theory (McCarthy & Prince 1995), I claim

that there is a system which can account for the whole grammar in a

language with more than one sub-lexicon. Correspondence Theory

recognizes the different types of faithfulness relations, and all

types, including Input-Output (IO), Base-Reduplicant (BR) or Output-

Output (OO) faithfulness, are evaluated in the same way, on the

basis of correspondence relations, regulated by ranked and violable

faithfulness constraints. I propose that Japanese instantiates

multiple sets of IO faithfulness constraints interacting in the same

grammar. With multiple types of IO faithfulness, all the stratum

specific phonological phenomena can be explained within the same

grammar. By proposing four kinds of IO faithfulness relations in

the same language, I contend that a language consists of a single

grammar; or a total ordering of constraints.

Moreover, I introduce the recent study on lexical stratification by

Fukazawa, Kitahara, and Ota (1998) to indicate that some Japanese

hybrids are crucial evidence for differentiating my claim from Ito

& Mester's re-ranking system.
Type:Paper/tech report
Article:Version 1