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Title:Generalized Sympathy
Authors:Jongho Jun
Comment:Phonetic font: SILDoulos IPA93
Abstract:In order to provide a non-serial analysis for phonological opacity, McCarthy (1998) proposes Sympathy Theory in which all candidates are required to be faithful to a certain model candidate, i.e. sympathy candidate. To select the sympathy candidate and actual output in parallel, McCarthy assumes special conditions for constraint evaluation, Confinement and Invisibility.
In this paper, we propose a generalized framework for phonological processes in general, not just opacity, in which special conditions are not needed. Optimality-Theoretic analyses for reduplication, truncation, paradigm uniformity and sympathy all presuppose presence of a pair of two representations, one of which may be considered as a base to the other: base/reduplicant, full word/truncatum, simple/derived word, and sympathy-candidate/output candidate. (Let us call the former B(ase) forms and the latter D(erived) forms.) In these processes, the project for phonology would be to determine the right pair of representations by checking similarity among three forms-I(nput), B, D--and markedness of each of the forms. Generalizing this reasoning, we first propose that Gen generate candidates, each of which consists of a pair of representations, i.e. B/D. Second, each constituent representation of a candidate is evaluated by markedness constraints. Third, different faithfulness constraints are imposed on the identity among I, B and D: IB, BD and ID faithfulness. IO, BR and IR-faithfulness constraints employed in the analyses of reduplication (McCarthy and Prince 1995) correspond to IB, BD and ID-faithfulness constraints respectively. In this generalized approach, opacity occurs when one IB-Faith and one BD-Faith are dominant in the ranking.
In the present framework, special conditions like Invisibility are not needed. Similarities among Sympathy, BR-Identity, and OO-Correspondence are directly captured since they are the same faithfulness constraints, i.e. BD-Faith. Finally, parallelism is explicitly incorporated.
Type:Paper/tech report
Article:Version 1